Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that harnesses the power of your immune system to fight cancer and other diseases. Unlike traditional treatments like chemotherapy and radiation, which directly target cancer cells, immunotherapy works by activating your immune system to identify and attack cancer cells.
There are several types of immunotherapy treatments available, each with its unique mechanism of action. Some treatments work by blocking certain proteins on cancer cells, while others involve genetically engineering your immune cells to better target cancer cells.
How Does Immunotherapy Work?
Immunotherapy works by harnessing the power of the immune system to fight cancer and other diseases. Unlike traditional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, which target cancer cells directly, immunotherapy works with the body’s own immune system to identify and attack cancer cells. The goal of immunotherapy is to boost the immune response, enabling the body to recognize and fight the cancer more effectively.
Types of Immunotherapy
There are several different types of immunotherapy, including:
|Type of Immunotherapy||Description|
|Checkpoint inhibitors||These drugs block the signals that cancer cells use to avoid detection by the immune system.|
|CAR-T cell therapy||This type of therapy uses genetically modified T cells to attack cancer cells.|
|Immune system modulators||These drugs stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.|
How Immunotherapy Works
Immunotherapy works by activating the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors, for example, work by blocking the signals that cancer cells use to avoid detection by the immune system. CAR-T cell therapy, on the other hand, involves removing T cells from a patient’s blood, modifying them in a laboratory to produce specific receptors that enable them to recognize and attack cancer cells, and then infusing these modified T cells back into the patient’s body.
Other types of immunotherapy work in different ways. However, all types of immunotherapy are designed to boost the body’s immune response, enabling it to fight cancer more effectively.
Types of Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving field, and there are several types of immunotherapy available, each with its own unique mechanism of action. Some of the most common types of immunotherapy are:
|Type of Immunotherapy||How it Works||Diseases Treated|
|Checkpoint Inhibitors||Block proteins that prevent immune cells from attacking cancer cells||Melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer|
|CAR-T Cell Therapy||Engineer immune cells to recognize and attack cancer cells||Leukemia, lymphoma|
|Immune System Modulators||Boost immune response to cancer cells through various mechanisms||Melanoma, bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, kidney cancer|
Checkpoint inhibitors are the most widely used and well-known type of immunotherapy. They work by blocking proteins called checkpoints that prevent immune cells from attacking cancer cells. By blocking these checkpoints, immune cells can recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively. CAR-T cell therapy is a more recent development that involves engineering a patient’s own immune cells to specifically target cancer cells. Immune system modulators work by boosting the overall immune response to cancer cells through various mechanisms.
Checkpoint inhibitors are a type of immunotherapy that works by blocking certain proteins on the surface of immune cells called checkpoints. These proteins normally act as “brakes” on the immune system, preventing it from attacking healthy cells. However, cancer cells can sometimes take advantage of these checkpoints to evade attack by the immune system. By blocking these checkpoints, checkpoint inhibitors can allow the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively.
Checkpoint inhibitors are most commonly used to treat advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. They are typically given through an intravenous infusion and can have side effects ranging from mild to severe, including fatigue, rash, diarrhea, and autoimmune reactions.
CAR-T Cell Therapy
CAR-T cell therapy is a type of immunotherapy that involves engineering a patient’s own immune cells to specifically target cancer cells. This is done by removing immune cells from the patient’s blood, genetically modifying them to produce chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognize and bind to specific proteins on cancer cells, and then infusing the CAR-T cells back into the patient’s body.
CAR-T cell therapy has shown promising results in clinical trials for the treatment of certain types of leukemia and lymphoma. However, it can also have severe side effects, including cytokine release syndrome and neurological toxicity.
Immune System Modulators
Immune system modulators are a type of immunotherapy that work by boosting the overall immune response to cancer cells through various mechanisms. Some immune system modulators work by increasing the number of immune cells in the body, while others work by enhancing the ability of immune cells to recognize and attack cancer cells.
Immune system modulators are most commonly used to treat advanced melanoma, bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and kidney cancer. They are typically given through an intravenous infusion and can have side effects ranging from mild to severe, including fatigue, fever, and autoimmune reactions.
Immunotherapy for Cancer
Immunotherapy has become an increasingly popular treatment for various types of cancer due to its ability to stimulate the body’s immune system to target and destroy cancer cells. This approach offers many benefits over traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
One type of immunotherapy used to treat cancer is checkpoint inhibitors. These drugs work by blocking certain proteins that normally prevent the immune system from attacking cancer cells. By doing so, they allow the immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells.
|Common checkpoint inhibitors used in cancer treatment:||Brand names:|
CAR-T Cell Therapy
Another type of immunotherapy is CAR-T cell therapy, which involves removing T cells from a patient’s blood and genetically modifying them to target cancer cells. These modified T cells are then infused back into the patient’s body where they can recognize and destroy cancer cells. This type of therapy has shown promising results in treating certain types of blood cancers.
Immune System Modulators
Immune system modulators are drugs that enhance the body’s immune system to help fight cancer. They work by boosting the function of natural killer cells, T cells, and other immune cells that target cancer cells. These drugs are often used in combination with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, to improve their effectiveness.
While immunotherapy can be effective in treating cancer, it is not suitable for all patients. Factors such as the type and stage of cancer, as well as a patient’s overall health, should be considered when deciding if immunotherapy is the right treatment option.
Benefits of Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy offers many benefits for patients with cancer and other diseases. Below are some of the key advantages:
- Fewer side effects: Unlike traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation, immunotherapy typically has fewer side effects. This is because immunotherapy drugs are designed to target cancer cells specifically, leaving healthy cells alone.
- Improved survival rates: In some cases, immunotherapy has been shown to improve survival rates for patients with cancer compared to traditional treatments.
- Better long-term outcomes: Immunotherapy has the potential to provide long-term benefits to patients, even after the treatment has ended. In some cases, the immune system can remember how to fight off the disease, providing ongoing protection.
- Treatment of multiple cancer types: Immunotherapy has been approved to treat a range of cancer types, including melanoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, and more. As research continues, more cancer types are being investigated for potential treatment with immunotherapy.
- Targeted treatment: Immunotherapy drugs are designed to target specific molecules or proteins on cancer cells, meaning that treatment can be tailored to each patient’s individual cancer.
Improved Quality of Life
One of the most significant benefits of immunotherapy is the potential for improved quality of life for patients. As mentioned, immunotherapy typically has fewer side effects compared to traditional treatments, meaning that patients can maintain their day-to-day activities and have a better overall experience during treatment.
Furthermore, because immunotherapy has the potential for long-term outcomes, patients can feel more confident in their ability to fight the disease and improve their overall quality of life.
Side Effects of Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy is generally well-tolerated, with fewer side-effects than traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy. However, some patients may still experience side effects, which can range from mild to severe. The side effects of immunotherapy depend on the type of treatment, the dose, and the individual patient’s response to the therapy. Here are the most common side effects associated with immunotherapy:
Feeling tired or weak is a common side effect of immunotherapy. It can range from mild to severe and can be caused by the body’s immune response to the treatment or the treatment itself.
2. Skin Reactions
Some patients may develop skin reactions such as rashes, itching, or blistering. These side effects may occur at the injection site or all over the body.
3. Gastrointestinal Side Effects
Immunotherapy can cause gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation. These side effects can vary in severity and duration.
4. Changes in Appetite
Some patients experience changes in appetite or taste as a side effect of immunotherapy. This can lead to weight gain or loss, which can be managed with appropriate dietary changes.
5. Flu-like Symptoms
Flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, muscle aches, and headache are also common side effects of immunotherapy. These side effects usually occur within a few hours to a few days after treatment and can be managed with over-the-counter medications.
If you are receiving immunotherapy treatment and experience any side effects, it’s important to speak to your healthcare provider immediately. In some cases, your healthcare provider may adjust your treatment regimen or recommend additional medications to manage side effects.
Immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field of research, and scientists are continually exploring new ways to harness the power of the immune system to fight diseases. Some of the most exciting developments in immunotherapy research include:
Combining different immunotherapy treatments or combining immunotherapy with other types of treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has shown promising results in clinical trials. These combination therapies may be more effective than using a single treatment alone.
Researchers are developing vaccines that are personalized to an individual’s specific cancer. These vaccines are designed to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells that are unique to that person.
Genetic and Molecular Profiling
Genetic and molecular profiling can help identify which patients are most likely to respond to specific types of immunotherapy. By analyzing a patient’s genetic makeup and tumor characteristics, doctors can tailor treatments to each individual’s unique needs.
Targeted immunotherapy is a type of treatment that is designed to attack specific proteins or molecules on cancer cells. This approach can be more effective and cause fewer side effects than traditional chemotherapy.
Immune System Boosting
Researchers are also exploring ways to boost the immune system in patients who do not respond well to traditional immunotherapy treatments. This may involve using drugs or other therapies to enhance the immune system’s ability to recognize and attack cancer cells.
Immunotherapy Clinical Trials
Clinical trials are essential to the development of new immunotherapy treatments. These trials are conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these treatments. Patients who participate in clinical trials have early access to new therapies and contribute to the advancement of medical science.
During a clinical trial, participants are closely monitored by medical professionals to determine the effects of the treatment. Trials are conducted in phases, with each phase designed to answer specific questions about the treatment’s safety and effectiveness. Before a clinical trial can be conducted, it must be reviewed and approved by an institutional review board (IRB) and the FDA.
There are several types of clinical trials that may be conducted for immunotherapy. These include:
|Type of Clinical Trial||Description|
|Prevention Trials||These trials test new interventions that may be able to prevent disease from occurring in the first place.|
|Treatment Trials||These trials test new treatments or new combinations of existing treatments to find more effective and less toxic regimens.|
|Diagnostic Trials||These trials test new ways of diagnosing a disease or new biomarkers that can detect the disease at an earlier stage.|
|Screening Trials||These trials test the effectiveness of a screening test to detect a disease or condition.|
If you are interested in participating in a clinical trial for immunotherapy, talk to your doctor about options that may be available to you.
Risks and Benefits of Clinical Trials
Participating in a clinical trial can be beneficial for patients as it provides access to new medications and treatments that are not yet available to the general public. However, there are also risks involved in clinical trials, including side effects and the possibility that the treatment may not work. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of participating in a clinical trial with your doctor before making a decision.
Is Immunotherapy Right for You?
Immunotherapy is a promising approach to treating cancer and other diseases, but it may not be suitable for everyone. Before deciding if immunotherapy is the right treatment for you, there are several factors to consider.
What Type of Cancer or Disease Do You Have?
Immunotherapy is currently approved to treat a variety of cancers, including melanoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and more. It is also used to treat certain non-cancerous diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, not all cancers or diseases are suitable for treatment with immunotherapy. Your healthcare provider can help determine if you are a good candidate for immunotherapy based on your specific diagnosis.
What is Your Overall Health?
Immunotherapy can cause side effects, some of which can be severe. It is important to discuss your overall health with your healthcare provider to determine if you are healthy enough to undergo immunotherapy treatment. Patients with compromised immune systems or who are taking certain medications may not be able to receive immunotherapy.
What Other Treatments Have You Tried?
Immunotherapy may be used in combination with other cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. If you have already tried other treatments without success, your healthcare provider may recommend immunotherapy as an alternative. However, it is important to discuss any previous treatment you have received with your healthcare provider to determine if immunotherapy is an appropriate option.
What Are Your Treatment Goals?
Immunotherapy can provide a range of benefits, including improved survival rates and long-term outcomes. However, it is important to discuss your treatment goals with your healthcare provider to determine if immunotherapy aligns with these goals. For example, if your primary goal is to extend your life, immunotherapy may be a good option. However, if your primary goal is to improve your quality of life, other treatments may be more appropriate.
Immunotherapy vs. Chemotherapy
Immunotherapy and chemotherapy are both treatment options that aim to destroy cancer cells, but they have significant differences in their approach, side effects and efficacy.
Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that helps the immune system fight cancer. It is based on the idea that the immune system can recognize and attack cancer cells, but sometimes it needs help to do so. Immunotherapy drugs work by blocking signals that cancer cells use to hide from the immune system, amplifying the immune system’s response, or by providing the immune system with new cancer-fighting tools.
The benefits of immunotherapy are that it can provide long-lasting results, and is often less toxic than chemotherapy, with fewer and milder side effects. Immunotherapy has also been successful in treating cancers that previously had limited treatment options.
Chemotherapy is a treatment that uses drugs to kill fast-growing cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy is administered through an IV or pill, and it not only affects cancer cells but also healthy cells. This means that chemotherapy often leads to negative side effects such as hair loss, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting.
While chemotherapy is often the most effective treatment option for some types of cancer, it does not work for everyone. Furthermore, it is known to have a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life and can cause severe side effects during treatment.
Which Treatment Option is Right for You?
Deciding whether to choose immunotherapy or chemotherapy depends on various factors such as cancer stage, patient’s medical history, and other health conditions. Discussing treatment options with a healthcare professional can help determine which treatment type is right for you. In some cases, a combination of both immunotherapy and chemotherapy may be recommended.
Ultimately, the treatment decision should be based on the patient’s individual needs and health status, and with the guidance and input of healthcare professionals.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
In this section, we will address some common questions about immunotherapy.
What types of diseases can be treated with immunotherapy?
Immunotherapy can be used to treat various types of cancer, including melanoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer, and lymphoma. It can also be used to treat autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Research is also being conducted for potential use in treating allergies and infectious diseases.
How is immunotherapy administered?
The way immunotherapy is administered depends on the type of treatment and the disease being treated. It can be given through injections, pills, or intravenous infusions in a clinical setting. Some forms of immunotherapy, such as CAR-T cell therapy, require the removal and modification of the patient’s own immune cells, which are then reintroduced to the patient’s body.
What are the common side effects of immunotherapy?
Common side effects of immunotherapy include fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, skin rashes, and flu-like symptoms. More severe side effects are less common, but can include pneumonia, liver or kidney damage, and neurological problems. Your healthcare team will monitor you closely and provide treatment for any side effects that occur.
How does immunotherapy differ from chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill rapidly dividing cells, including healthy cells and cancer cells. Immunotherapy works by enhancing the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells or other diseases. While chemotherapy can have more immediate effects on cancer cells, immunotherapy can provide longer-lasting benefits with fewer side effects.
Is immunotherapy right for everyone?
Immunotherapy may not be suitable for everyone. Factors that are considered include the type of cancer or disease being treated, the patient’s overall health, and whether the patient has received any prior treatments. Your healthcare team will evaluate your individual situation and determine whether immunotherapy is a viable treatment option for you.
Are there any ongoing research or clinical trials for immunotherapy?
Yes, there are ongoing research and clinical trials to develop new immunotherapy treatments and improve existing ones. Clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new treatments before they can be widely used. Your healthcare team can provide you with information on any trials that may be available to you.
Dr. Connealy has over 30 years of experience and has taken numerous advanced courses, including homeopathic, nutritional, and lifestyle approaches, while studying disease, chronic illness, and Alternative or Integrative/Functional Medicine cancer treatments.
In addition, Dr. Connealy imparts her wisdom in educating medical practitioners from all over the world; as well as, public speaking engagements, webinars, and podcasts that include: The Truth About Cancer, a variety of series with Jonathan Otto, Sarah Otto, Nathan Crane, and Dr. Mercola. She offers the most scientifically and technologically advanced equipment and protocols at her clinic located in (Southern California) Irvine.